It is becoming apparent that the conventional lecture-based teaching as used in face-to-face classrooms may not be appropriate to be transferred to "Learn From Home" learning model. In the lecture-based teaching learning model, teachers present the contents during the class sessions (as in 1 ), and the students perform tasks or activities to strengthen the teachers' explanations at home. In this face-to-face environment, the teacher and the classroom provide the context to hold the attention of the students for the teacher to transmit the knowledge.
In this learning model, to complete the process of assimilation of the contents, the students tackle problem-solving on their own (as in 2), without the help of a teacher to answer any questions that might arise. When this occurs on a continuous bases, the students become frustrated with accumulated unsolved problems.
Converging evidence suggests that listening to a classroom lecture is not an effective way to promote deep and lasting student learning. Moreover, current students appear to be less engaged in the classroom with lecture-based teaching. In contemporary digital age, instant access to information has revolutionised not only learning but also teaching. The role of educators has been shifting, especially since educators are no longer the single source of information for their students. The latest digital advances have brought boundless opportunities for both students and teachers to take on a much more active role in the learning process. The flipped classroom (FC) approach offers several additional advantages. It allows self-paced preparation where students take responsibility for the basic knowledge and comprehension of content (see 1A).
In this new teaching strategy, the students become the main protagonists of the learning process, in which the role of the teacher is more important than ever, as he/she must guide the students in their learning, showing them the resources and strategies for overcoming obstacles (see 2A). Besides engaging students, this active learning strategy has also been shown to improve knowledge retention.
In this flipped learning model, the transmission of concepts occurs before the class, through the use of technological resources (generally videos) designed and created by the teacher. While viewing the videos, students work on the lower learning levels according to Bloom’s Taxonomy. In the classrooms, with the guidance from the teacher, they will be working on activities that enhance the higher order cognitive skills, such as application, analysis, evaluation and creation.